We live in a time of data. Every day, tools for creating, storing, communicating, and manipulating data grow more sophisticated and ubiquitous. Yet, the cultural and intellectual frameworks that underlie our data-saturated world are old, and their histories illuminate important aspects of our present. In his lecture, Daniel Rosenberg explores the long history of the concept data, emphasizing its foundations in early modernity. Through this history, Rosenberg argues, we can understand the problem of data in terms both different and more durable than the everyday use of the term suggests.